Naples and surroundings and next Events
The city of “Neapolis” was founded during the VIII century A.C. by the inhabitants of the Greek colony of Cuma, called in this way (Neapolis, “new city”) in order to differentiate it from the oldest city of Partenope (Palepolis, “old city” founded during the VI century) that was built up in the space comprised between Monte Echia (where now is the “Castel dell’Ovo") and the hill of Pizzofalcone. This “new city” of Greek foundation was characterized, and it is still characterized, as the rest of the cities of Greek origin, by its “ippodameo” town planning (grill shape plant): three large “decumani”, with East-West direction (Via Tribunali, Via Anticaglia, via San Biagio dei Librai), meet (intercrossed) with many “Cardi” (hinges), narrow lanes much more tightened with direction north-south. In spite of the later urban planning stratification, and the rising of “more Naples” (such as the one of the Middle age, the Spanish one etc…) the classic Greek urban planning shape of its historical town centre is still visible, indeed it is one of the bigger “opened historical centers” of Europe, an artistic and cultural patrimony that Unesco has not hesitated to declare “patrimony of the humanity”: Decumanus superior (via Sapienza, via Pisanelli, via Anticaglia, etc), Decumanus maior (via Tribunali), Decumanus inferior (via B. Cross, S. Biagio dei Librai, Spaccanapoli, etc), meet several “cardines”, giving birth to the liveliest and peculiar historical centre of Naples. Neapolis was not a “fighting city” which loved the war, but it had soon to be defended from two bad neighbours: the “Sanniti”, that in the 423 a.C conquered Cuma driving away the inhabitants, and the “Romani”, determined to expand towards south their rules. The first relationships between Rome and Neapolis were imprinted to the friendship and the attempt to stipulate cultural and trade agreements, but, under the pressures of the other colonies, Neapolis was pushed to refuse collaborations with the Roman; this carried in the 326 A.C to a war that, in spite of the alliance of the “sanniti” and “nolani” with Naples, concluded with the victory of the Romans. The peace was not however disgraceful: a confederation with Rome was created, and the city could keep their own prerogatives and institutions, revealing themselves as one faithful allied of the more and more powerful neighbours. Neapolis was for Rome an important vehicle of the Greek culture and civilization: the city began the place for the summery residences of the roman “patrizi”, they constructed between Puteoli and Sorrento many villas (Scipione the African, Silla, Tiberio, Caligola, Claudius, Nerone, Bruto and Lucullo, as an example. Orazio, Plinio the Old one, Virgilio, found here inspiration for the artistic genius). Naples was the centre of refined culture, a border of Greece in the “italica peninsula”, the Roman always knew to respect and to appreciate it, avoiding to pollute it and to oppress it. In the beginning of the Middle Age it became part of the “Bizantino” empire, then independent under the direction of “its duchi”, with the other “Marine Republics”, tradet and fought with the Muslims.